abhava: feeling of non-being, absence of awareness pratyaya: going toward conviction, trust alambana: support, abode, dependence on a prop vrttih: function, condition, thought-wave nidra: sleep without dreams Sleep is the non-deliberate absence of thought-waves or knowledge. In a dreamless sleep the consciousness is stilled without any effort.
sabdajnana: verbal knowledge anupati: followed in sequence, pursued vastusunyah: devoid of meaning vikalpah: imagination Verbal knowledge devoid of substance is fancy or imagination. Having an imagination is helpful (and fun) but we cannot live in this realm all the time. At some point the imaginary words or thoughts can become an untruth.
viparyayah: perverse, unreal mithyajnanam: illusory knowledge atadrupa: not in its own form pratistham: occupying, standing, seeing, beholding Illusory or erroneous knowledge is based on non-fact or the non-real. A false conception can generate wrong feelings. Our consciousness then responds to the wrong feelings by generating more thoughts, based on the original false impression. A vicious…
pratyaksa: direct perception anumana: inference agamah: texts or scriptures, a person who is a scriptural authority and whose word can be relied on pramanani: kinds of proof Correct knowledge is direct, inferred or proven as factual. There are three ways to know something correctly: you can know from your own direct perception, from deduction, from…
pramana: valid / correct knowledge viparyaya: inverted, perverse vikalpa: doubt, indecision, imagination or day-dreaming nidra: sleep smrtayah: memory They are caused by correct knowledge, illusion, delusion, sleep and memory. The five-fold fluctuations of consciousness.
vrttaya: movements pancatayyah: fivefold klista: painful aklista: non-painful The movements of consciousness are fivefold. They may be cognizable or non-cognizable, painful or non-painful. cognizable: perceptible, clearly identifiable. The movements of consciousness are either perceptible or not. They can either be painful or not painful.
vrtti: fluctuations, modifcation sarupyam: indetification itaratra: at other times At other times, the seer identifies with the fluctuation consciousness. When the consciousness is not stilled the seer gets caught up in the fluctuations. The fluctuations appear as a reverie which take one away from the present moment.
tada: then, at that time drastuh: the soul svarupe: in his state avasthanam: dwells Then, the seer dwells in his own true splendor. When the consciousness is stilled then our impression of our self is no longer distorted.
yogah: union or integration citta: consciousness vrtti: fluctuations nirodhah: restraint Yoga is the cessation of the movements in the consciousness. This is definition of yoga. The study of the consciousness with an attempt to bring the thoughts under our control.
atha: now, auspiciousness, a prayer yoga: joining, union, junction, combination anusasanam: advice, direction, order, command, instructions With prayers for divine blessings, now begins an exposition of the sacred art of yoga. We can begin our study of yoga now. Anytime. Patanjali gives the instructions to follow on the path.