1.8 viparyayah mithyajnanam atadrupa pratistham
viparyayah: perverse, unreal
mithyajnanam: illusory knowledge
atadrupa: not in its own form
pratistham: occupying, standing, seeing, beholding
Illusory or erroneous knowledge is based on non-fact or the non-real.
A false conception can generate wrong feelings. Our consciousness then responds to the wrong feelings by generating more thoughts, based on the original false impression. A vicious cycle which takes us in the wrong direction.